From the Latin aqua, water is a substance whose molecules are made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. It is an odorless (odorless), tasteless (tasteless), and colorless (colorless) liquid, although it can also be in a solid state (when known as ice) or a gaseous (vapor) state.
Water is the component that appears most abundantly in the earth ‘s surface (covering about 71% of the crust of the Earth). It forms oceans, rivers and rains, in addition to being a constituent part of all living organisms. The circulation of water in ecosystems occurs through a cycle consisting of evaporation or transpiration, precipitation and movement towards the sea.
Fresh water is known as water that contains a minimal amount of dissolved salts (unlike sea water, which is salty). Through a process of purification, the human being manages to convert fresh water into drinking water, that is, suitable for consumption thanks to the balanced value of its minerals. It is important to highlight that the shortage of drinking water in many regions of the planet generates more than 5 million deaths a year.
The mineral water, as its name suggests, contains minerals and other dissolved substances, so that a value is added therapeutic or taste is altered. This type of water is the one that is marketed bottled throughout the world for human consumption.
Water scarcity is a problem that occurs everywhere on the planet. Around 20% of the world population lives in areas where there is not enough water, and another 10% is close to this situation. On the other hand, 25% must face the lack of resources on the part of their country to carry out the transport of water from aquifers and rivers.
According to Digopaul, water scarcity has become one of the most urgent issues to be resolved in the 21st century, in part because of the excessive consumption that took place during the previous hundred years, whose rate doubled that of birth rates. While it is not correct to say that the entire Earth suffers from lack of water, the number of areas lacking this vital resource grows worryingly.
As is known, the action of our species is, to a large extent, responsible for this phenomenon: the quantity of drinking water present in the entire world is sufficient to supply us all; however, given the irregularity with which it is distributed and the enormous waste by a large percentage of the population, its management becomes unsustainable.
In general, hydrology uses the relationship between water and population to measure scarcity, which exists when the annual supply of water to a region decreases by 1,000 cubic meters per person; water stress is spoken, on the other hand, when the drop is 1700 cubic meters. Absolute scarcity occurs when each individual has access to less than 500 cubic meters per year.
In other words, water scarcity occurs when the demand for this resource cannot be met, either because of its quantity or its quality. It is important to remember that it is not only used for drinking, but that the human being has given it other uses, which also enter the equation.
For this reason, scarcity is a relative concept, a phenomenon that can arise from excessive demand in an environment that could well supply real needs, or from the lack of the minimum necessary for the lives of its users.