TDMA stands for Time Division Multiple Access, which in Spanish translates Multiple Access by Time Division. As such, it is a second generation wireless technology used in telecommunications. TDMA digital cellular systems, in this sense, are capable of using a common channel for communication between multiple users, as the information units are distributed in several time slots. The channels, as such, can be divided into up to eight different time intervals.

Hence, with TDMA technology, each user making a call is assigned a specific time slot for transmission. In this way, several users can use the same channel at the same time without interfering with each other. In addition, because a phone only needs two time slots to send and receive an audio, the remaining time can be used for other operations such as, for example, that the user has a call waiting signal or can switch between two calls.

TDMA technology, which began to be developed in the 1980s, was not implemented until 1992 by some of the world’s largest telecommunications companies. Currently, both in Europe and Japan, TDMA is used because it is a simple, very reliable technique, and widely tested in commercial communication systems.

Technology is known as a product or solution formed by a set of tools, methods and techniques designed to solve a problem.


Generally, technology is associated with scientific knowledge and engineering; However, technology is any notion that can facilitate life in society, or that can meet individual or collective demands or needs, adjusted to the requirements of a specific time. As for its etymological origin, the word technology means “the study of technique.” It comes from the Greek τεχνολογία (tenthology), which is composed of τέχνη (téjne) , which means “technique, art, trade”, and λόγος (logos), “study, treatise”.

On the other hand, technology also refers to the scientific discipline focused on the study, research, development and innovation of techniques and procedures, devices and tools that are used for the transformation of raw materials into objects or useful goods. practice.

At this point, it is important to highlight that the technique is the set of technical knowledge, skills, and rules that are used to obtain a result. On the other hand, technology is the means, that is, it is the link between how, which the technique solves, and why. The following terms can be used as synonyms for the word technology: applied sciences, knowledge, techniques, etc.

Currently, the classification of technology into two categories is recognized: hard technologies and soft technologies.

Hard technology

It is any product, solution or tangible component whose creation comes from the transformation of materials. Hardware parts and industrial machinery are a clear example of hard technology. For a technology to be considered hard, it must meet these characteristics:

  • It must be innovative: if the product created no longer meets current needs, it cannot be considered hard technology.
  • It must be novel: you have to make a contribution regarding what has already been created.
  • It may become obsolete over time.
  • It must be fast: this applies especially to developments in the field of computing.

It requires maintenance: otherwise, the product will not be able to meet the needs for which it was created.

Soft technology

It is all the knowledge or methodology that has been created to improve social dynamics. It is called that because it is generated from the so-called soft sciences, such as psychology, economics, letters, statistics, social sciences, etc. As their function is to generate knowledge to boost processes, they have multiple applications in the business and resource management world.

Soft technology is essential so that another type of technology can be generated. Software, for example, is considered soft technology and is essential in the development of hardware, which is hard technology.

Technology Advances

Technology has been key in the technical progress of humanity, in this sense it has been possible to demonstrate specific and important technological advances at different times such as:

Primitive or classical technologies: they led to the discovery of fire, the invention of the wheel or writing. Medieval technologies: these include important inventions such as printing, the development of navigation technologies, or the improvement of military technology.

Technology in manufacturing: more recently, in the 18th century, the technological development of manufacturing processes proved decisive for the Industrial Revolution. Information and communication technology: in the twentieth century, technology evolved in the area of ​​information and communication, as well as advanced technologies, including the use of nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biotechnology, etc.

Currently, the technology considered advanced and recently invented, is called the latest technology. It is characterized by its high price, and for representing an innovation against existing technologies. Advances in technology or technological innovations offer better living conditions for society, while, as negative factors, worrying social issues arise, such as unemployment due to the replacement of man by the machine or the pollution of the environment, which require a continuous and strict control.

Technology in education

Educational technology or applied to education comprises the set of scientific and pedagogical knowledge, associated with methods, techniques, means and tools, which is applied for instructional purposes in the teaching-learning process. In this way, educational technology provides teachers with a wide range of educational instruments, whether theoretical or material, to favor and make teaching dynamics more efficient.

Therefore, an important emphasis is placed on the support provided by a material resource such as audiovisual technology in the educational process, as well as digital technology.

For example, language laboratories, projectors and films have been made, the use of computers and mobile telephony has also been included, which are resources used in the teaching process to optimize their results. Currently, in some schools, augmented reality is beginning to be implemented for pedagogical purposes.

Technology of the information and communication

Information and communication technologies, also called ICTs, are a concept that refers to a wide variety of technological resources, developed from computing, which are used in telecommunications. Some of the most commonly used ICTs today are mobile phone networks, mobile devices (phones, laptops ), mail services and online games.

The possibility of interacting through networks or on the Internet of equipment such as the computer, mobile phone or any other electronic device with the ability to store, process and transmit information, has caused a profound revolution in the way in which people access, generate And we spread information.


Biotechnology is a field of study of a multidisciplinary approach that includes the areas of biology, chemistry, genetics, virology, agronomy, engineering, medicine and veterinary medicine. Biotechnology is applied in agriculture, the food and pharmaceutical industry, forestry and medicine.

Biotechnology implies the use of living organisms or of compounds extracted from them for the obtaining or modification of a product or of utility for the human being. For example, the manufacture of yogurt, cheese or alcoholic beverages requires biotechnological processes such as the creation of yeasts to obtain a product suitable for human consumption.

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